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美国政府对天然气市场监管的历史演变及启示
牛琦彬
(中国石油大学 工商管理学院, 北京 102249)
摘要:
美国政府对天然气市场监管的历史演变主要有以下过程,即1938年联邦政府开始对跨州天然气管线和运价进行监管,1954—1978年对天然气井口价实行管制,1978—1985年逐渐放松井口价格管制,1985—1989年实行天然气商品和管道运输业务的分离政策,1989年最终取消天然气井口价格管制,最近几年开始探索和构建顾客选择计划。美国政府对天然气市场监管的经验和教训对中国天然气监管具有重要启示,中国应尽快出台天然气法,对天然气行业进行打破垄断的拆分和重构,有必要建立一个独立的能源监管机构,对天然气工业监管的重点应放在产业链的管网运输等具有自然垄断性质的部分,其他部分应该逐渐进行市场化改革。
关键词:  天然气  监管  美国联邦能源监管委员会  自然垄断
DOI:10.13216/j.cnki.upcjess.2017.01.0001
分类号:F416.22
基金项目:教育部“全国高校优秀中青年思想政治理论课教师择优资助计划”暨教育部人文社会科学研究专项任务项目(编号:2015JDSZK016).
The Historical Evolution of U.S. Government 's Regulation of Nature Gas Market and Implications
NIU Qibin
(School of Business Administration, China University of Petroleum, Beijing 102249, China)
Abstract:
This paper analyses the historical evolution of U.S. government 's regulation of nature gas market:federal government involving in trans-state pipeline and the transportation price in 1938, regulating the wellhead price from 1954 to 1978, loosing the regulation of the wellhead price from 1978 to 1985, unbundling policy of gas and pipeline delivery from 1985 to 1989, deregulating the wellhead price in 1989, and the customer choice program in recent years. The paper summarizes the implications of the American experiences and lessons to China 's regulation, that is, to publish the natural gas act as soon as possible, to split and reconstruct the natural gas industry to break the monopoly, to establish an isolated energy regulation institution. The government shall put the key of regulation on the parts of the natural gas industry with natural monopoly, such as transportation pipelines, etc., and adopt market principles for the other parts.
Key words:  natural gas  regulation  FERC  natural monopoly